Papillomas on the body are benign formations of an infectious nature. Predominantly strains 16 and 18 have a tendency to degenerate into malignant forms (more than 100 species are known in total). Wart and papilloma are synonymous terms.
Features of the disease:
- It occurs in people of any age, mainly in women (the number of detected cases is 1. 5 times higher than in men).
- Infection occurs by contact-household or sexual contact. It remains unnoticed for a long time, since the virus does not have a strong effect on the immune system. In addition, after the introduction into the genome, only the viral DNA remains, and not the virus itself (it is almost impossible to remove).
- There are a number of vaccines designed to reduce infections and reduce susceptibility to the viral agent.
- Immunity after an infection is formed type-specific, non-cross, non-stressed, low, which means the possibility of re-infection.
The main reason for the appearance of papilloma on the body is the human papillomavirus (HPV, papillomavirus). It belongs to DNA-containing viruses, which explains its ability to integrate into the human genome and change its structure. The virus enters the bloodstream through microdamages and settles on the basal layer of the epidermis. Division occurs only at the level of the germ layer, in the rest the virus can be detected, but there is no division at these levels.
There are several clinical forms of the disease:
- manifest - primary infection with the virus in people with reduced immunity;
- subclinical - a form in which manifestations of this pathology periodically occur, followed by long-term relapses;
- latent - a form associated with the direct integration of the virus into the genome (carriage).
Predisposing factors in the development of neoplasms:
- Skin damage. The virus is not able to enter the bloodstream without at least a minimal injury to the skin, which serves as the entrance gate of infection.
- Reduced immunity. HPV can be attributed to conditionally pathogenic viruses, which makes it dangerous for humans in case of suppression of a normal cellular or humoral immune response.
- Failure to comply with hygiene rules when visiting public places. The virus is contagious, and infection can occur even at low concentrations in the environment.
- Violation of the normal diet, constant stress and lack of proper rest lead to suppression of the immune system, the body becomes vulnerable to the action of the pathogen.
- Frequent inflammatory and infectious diseases lead to the depletion of the immune system (this is especially important for people who are often ill).
- Human papillomavirus can also be passed from mother to child at birth (vertical transmission).
External manifestations of papillomas in the photo have the following features:
- Multiple formations protruding above the surface of the skin. They can take the form of a classic wart (a flat lesion on a wide stalk) or have a thin stalk and hang over the skin like a cockscomb.
- The color rarely differs from the surrounding tissues. The exception is cases of germination of the formation in the superficial vascular network, in which case it acquires a reddish tint. A quick change in color signals a possible rebirth (differentiation with moles is also carried out).
- The contour is usually even and clear. Exceptions are formations that have degenerated into a tumor.
- The surface is often smooth and somewhat shiny. In the case of location in the region of the upper eyelids, neck, armpits, the surface is often uneven with pointed elevations like cauliflower.
- The diameter ranges from small foci of a few millimeters to 1-2 cm. On the same part of the human body, formations of different calibers may be present. If the papilloma grows too fast, a doctor's consultation is required.
How to get rid of papillomas
Treatment of papillomas on the body occurs according to a single scheme, regardless of the exact localization (for each specific type there is an optimal option or combination):
- Destructive methods (physical and chemical).
- Combined techniques (simultaneous action of local drugs and destructive treatment options).
It is permissible to treat papillomas with cytotoxic and immunological preparations only under the condition of a total process (papillomatosis, i. e. , a very large number of papillomas on the body). In cases with single formations, such therapy is not carried out due to the large number of side effects and cross-reactions in drugs of these groups.
Destructive treatment options are the same for all types of skin lesions caused by HPV. They are divided into physical and chemical.
Methods of physical destruction:
|Electrocoagulation||The formation is cut off in layers from healthy skin (a rather deep defect can form, which will heal for a long time). Under the condition of a deep lesion, it is performed under local anesthesia with a solution of lidocaine (2%). For this, a needle electrode is used.|
|Cryodestruction||Usually liquid nitrogen, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide is used. The exposure time is selected taking into account the location and extent of the lesion. Often several sessions are required with a frequency of 7-10 days.|
|Laser destruction||Layer-by-layer removal of a skin neoplasm using a concentrated beam of light of a certain wave. On average, exposure can last from 5 seconds to 3 minutes, depending on the extent of the lesion. As a result, a scab appears at the site of the lesion. Subsequently, dressings are required until the wound heals. The procedure is done under local anesthesia.|
|Radiosurgical destruction||Education is destroyed due to the action of an electromagnetic wave in the range from 100 kHz to 105 MHz. In this case, the tissues are heated, and local necrosis occurs (suitable for removing small foci).|
At home, it is permissible to get rid of the growth with traditional medicine, but it should be borne in mind that their effectiveness is low. In addition, before starting such treatment, consultation with a specialist is required in order to differentiate papillomas from a number of other skin diseases with similar manifestations.
|Celandine juice||Mash the stem of the plant with the fresh juice obtained, wipe the affected area 3-5 times a day for 10 days.|
|potato juice||Grate raw potatoes until gruel, then squeeze and wipe the formation with the resulting juice 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment is 4-5 weeks.|
|onion juice||Finely chop 1 onion, press down a little until juice appears. Apply the resulting slurry to the focus for 10-15 minutes 2-3 times a day. Treatment should be carried out for 3 weeks.|
Mash several flowers in a mortar, apply the resulting mixture to the affected area and fix for 30 minutes. Repeat the procedure in the morning and evening for 21 days.